Publications

March 10, 2020

Cyber incidents, security measures and financial returns: Empirical evidence from Dutch firms

This CPB discussion paper investigates the cybersecurity of Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises, the security measures they take and the relationship thereof with financial...

October 17, 2019

Cyber Security Risk Assessment 2019

Persistent risks, new risks and uncertainty.

Image for Cyber Security Risk Assessment 2019
July 4, 2019

Insights into the NCSC security advisories

In the Netherlands the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) is the central organization for cyber security. The Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security (JenV) requested CPB to conduct data-driven research into the...

Image for Insights into the NCSC security advisories
July 3, 2017

Cyber Security Risk Assessment (CSRA) for the Economy

Society is digitising. The five most valuable companies in the world are ICT companies. The Dutch population makes extensive use of the Internet, and the government is also focusing increasingly on the use of digital means. This digitisation also involves an increase in the economic importance of cyber security.

July 6, 2016

Cyber Security Risk Assessment for the Economy

This cyber security risk assessment (CSRA) in intended to provide insight into the underlying causes, consequences and magnitude of cyber risks; thus, helping policymakers and businesses to understand and prioritise those risks.

April 29, 2015

What drives cybercrime? Empirical evidence from DDoS attacks

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are a frequently occurring type of cybercrime, with potentially large costs to the real economy. We propose a simple model of the size and direction of DDoS attacks.

Image for What drives cybercrime? Empirical evidence from DDoS attacks
March 10, 2015

Estimating the Impact of Forced Sales on House Prices

We study the price effects of forced sales on the Dutch housing market. A forced sale may result in a lower transaction price because of e.g. suboptimal incentives for revenue maximization.

Image for Estimating the Impact of Forced Sales on House Prices