An economic assessment of various methods of road pricing
The schemes of road pricing that have been analysed can roughly be classified in two groups: (i) Specific charges, on a limited number of places and hours: (ii)Flat charges on each kilometer driven. These pricing schemes have been assessed on their merits as a regulatory instrument (traffic flows, the environment) and as a financing instrument. Moreover, the impacts on the distrubution of income over groups of households and enterprises is studied.
According to the cost-benefit analysis, reducing congestion is best served with a policy of constructing new roads in areas where costs are not too high combined with specific road charges on other congested parts of the network. The welfare gains of well-designed congestion charges can exceed 1½ bln euro a year. Capitalised, this amounts to more than 20 bln euro. Flat charges turn out to be less efficiënt.
The publication is in Dutch.