What will the Netherlands look like in 2050? Will we still be the prosperous nation we are today, combining high levels of productivity and education with an extensive welfare state? And what will the pathway towards 2050 be like? We are confronted with the consequences of climate change, with technological progress, with a population that is becoming larger, older and more diverse as a result of aging and migration, with shifting geopolitical power relations and with social changes that seem to have intensified since the COVID-19 pandemic. What does all this mean for the organization of our economy?