The Chinese economy, seen from Japan and the Netherlands
With two-thirds of Dutch imports from China being re-exported, the emergence of China has enhanced the role of the Netherlands as European distribution centre. As for exports, China is now a major market for Japan, but not for the Netherlands. This is in line with gravity models of foreign trade. The same holds for differences in foreign direct investment (FDI), with Japan the biggest investor in China and the Netherlands a minor one. The emergence of China has increased purchasing power of Japanese and Dutch households, while its effects on labour markets and income distribution are relatively modest. In spite of differences between Japan and the Netherlands, the consequences for economic policy of the increasing role of China are very similar.