The scope of the external return to higher education
The results indicate that the scope of higher education spillovers is very limited. Most of the identified spillovers occur within firms, being a factor of 2-3 larger than those operating outside the firm. The spillovers that take place outside the firm are restricted within the own sector and only occur on short distances from the working place. The limited scope confirms the view that higher education spillovers foster aggregate productivity through the exchange of tacit knowledge, which is heavily dependent on face-to-face contact.